From the results of the literature review, the association between coffee consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease is generally lost after adjustment for (1) coronary heart disease risk factors of conventional and (2) a strong correlation with coffee consumption of unhealthy living habits. In fact some studies have shown a protective effect of coffee consumption on coronary heart disease in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Study in Finland shows results stratified inverse association between coffee drinking to risk of type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism / theoretical basis of this reduced risk is unclear (Tuomilehto et al, 2004).
Werner and Bohm (2006), refers to penelitain prospective cohort of Lopez-Garcia (2006), says there is no association between coffee consumption and an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal myocardial miokardiak. Of this study also showed no correlation between coffee consumption and incidence of DM. The study also did not confirm an association between coffee consumption and arterial hypertension. This is corroborated by the results of the study Winkelmayer et al (2005) found no linear association between caffeine consumption and incident hypertension. Habit of consuming coffee is not associated with an increased risk of hypertension, it is in contrast to regular consumption of cola drinks or diet cola drinks associated with hypertension.
Various case-control study showed that increased coffee consumption is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A meta-analysis of a collection of case-control studies showed 60% increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) to 5 cups a day coffee drinker. However, the majority of prospective cohort studies did not find any explanation of the correlation between coffee consumption and CHD. This is related to the lack of research on the acute effects of caffeine and coffee consumption loss of follow-up in a long-term research.
The lack of long-term research is concluded with the results of Lopez-Garcia et al study that shows coffee intake, either acute or chronic, is not associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease.